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End stage renal disease (ESRD) is an epidemiological notion that starts from the idea that persistent kidney damage may be the consequence of many etiological factors. ESRD consists of the progressive nephron loss and renal function damage.
When the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) reaches a critical level below 60 ml/minute/1.73m2, adaptive renal and systemic mechanisms become harmful resulting in a reduction in the number of nephrons which leads to chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Kidney transplantation work in China started about 10 years later than abroad. However, the source of donors has gradually transitioned to donation after citizen’s death (DCD) since 2012, and kidney transplantation in China has made steady progress step by step. This chapter is aimed to elaborate the kidney transplant work in China from the history and immunological assessment, donor maintenance and donor quality assessment, operation methods, postoperative major complications, and application of immunosuppressive agents to the postoperative follow-up. Kidney transplantation is a meaningful and challenging work in current China, all the Chinese transplant surgery and scholar are devoting themselves to this work in order to give more effective help to the patients.